Approximately 65 million job-years will be created in building the Physical Internet® of JPods, ET3, Hyperloop, Taxi2000, Metrino, SkyRide and others that will follow these pioneers.
Radically more efficient and safer mobility networks are well understood:
- The 140,000 miles of freight railroads in the US that average 476 ton-miles per gallon. Yet the Federal highway monopoly removed efficiency as a market force with The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 forcing the abandonment of nearly half the freight railroads in America.
- The Personal Rapid Transit (PRT or podcar) network built in Morgantown, WV as a solution to the 1973 Oil Embargo has delivered 110 million oil-free, injury-free passenger-miles since going into operation in 1975. Yet in this same period 1.7 million American have been road-killed. Who is killed on highways is fairly random, that 10.6 people per 100,000 will be killed is designed into highway networks.
- In contrast to 10 per hundred thousand kill-rate of DOT designed technologies, the injury rate at thrill rides at theme parks is 4.6 injuries per million people.
Leveraging how theme parks are regulated, the safety of theme parks, efficiecy of freight rail, and on-demand service of the internet can be combined to build solar-powered mobility networks. Think of a theme park as a model city designed around pedestrians, with especial attention to the needs children and their grand parents. There are big, powerful machines, but they are grade separated to create intrinsic safety.
The size of the Physical Internet® is estimated at 500,000 miles in the US. Building logistical capillaries to deliver goods as oil become unaffordable is likely to require.
- 4 times the 140,000 miles of freigh railroads.
- 1/4th of the nearly 2 million miles of urban roads. Affordable oil to power these roads is depleting since US Peak Oil in 1970. Traffic on these networks costs the American people $1.5 trillion per year. Approximately 90 cents of every dollar spent on congested urban traffic can be recovered as customer savings, to pay for jobs, and reward capital for investing to build the networks.
Number of Jobs
The Federal Highway Administration cites the White House for the 13,000 jobs for one year per $1 billion in highway spending (link).
At $10 million per mile, 500,000 miles of networks equated to $5 trillion. At 13,000 jobs per $billion of infrastructure costs equates to 65 million new job-years building the Physical Interent®.
JPods are "energy jobs". Every mile gathers 4 megawatt-hours per day and employees 9 people. At 500,000 miles that is 4.5 million workers. Using Exxon's numbers that energy jobs create two additional jobs, the Physical Internet will create about 13.5 million jobs.
Employment Impacts of Highway Infrastructure Investment
The most recent official estimate of the impacts of infrastructure investment on employment was generated by Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) within the Executive Office of the President. The CEA estimated that every $1 billion in Federal highway and transit investment funded by the American Jobs Act would support 13,000 jobs for one year http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2011/09/09/american-jobs-act-state-state.
This figure is also cited in briefing materials for the Administration's reauthorization proposal, the GROW AMERICA Act http://www.dot.gov/sites/dot.gov/files/docs/Workforce_DOT_Reuth_FINAL_2014.pdf and the Department of Transportation's 2014 TIGER Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA), https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2014/03/03/2014-04627/notice-of-funding-availability-for-the-department-of-transportations-national-infrastructure#footnote-3
The total jobs number includes the number of direct, indirect and induced jobs:
A direct job is the job created by the actual government expenditure and the wages are paid for from the funds for the project.
An indirect job is the job created by the expenditures the suppliers make to produce the materials used for the project. The cost of this would be included in the cost of the materials.
An induced job is the job created elsewhere in the economy as increases in income from the direct government spending lead to additional increases in spending by workers and firms.
In analyses developed for the America Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the CEA had estimated that 64 percent of the job-years represent direct and indirect effects while 36 percent of the job-years are the induced effects http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/cea/estimate-of-job-creation/.
It is important to note that the employment impact of infrastructure investment does not remain constant over time. Any increase in construction materials prices and wages over time will tend to reduce the number of jobs supported by each $1 billion invested. Other factors such as changes in worker productivity and consumer's typical rate of savings will also affect the average number of jobs supported.
In the near term, increases in infrastructure spending would significantly boost economic activity and employment.
- Under scenario one, a debt-financed $18 billion annual investment in infrastructure yields a $29 billion increase in GDP and 216,000 net new jobs by the end of the first year, with the increased levels then sustained over the next decade.
- Under scenario two, a debt-financed package of green investments totaling $92 billion annually boosts GDP by $147 billion and generates 1.1 million net new jobs by the end of the first year, with the increased levels then sustained over the next decade.
- Under scenario three, a debt-financed $250 billion annual investment boosts GDP by $400 billion and overall employment by 3 million net new jobs by the end of the first year, with the increased levels then sustained over the seven-year life of the investment.
The direct job estimate is based on a direct multiplier of 8.34 jobs per million dollars of construction spending, with project construction spending estimated at $854 million; thus, 8.34 x 854 = 7,122.36 direct jobs.
Wealth from the Many to the Few, how Federal Highway policies created poverty in America. As JPods builds networks into low income neighborhoods, the barriers to logistics will diminish, jobs will migrate into neighborhoods:
- In the 1950s, city planners used hyperbole when they suggested that highways could act as a panacea, unclogging the arteries of unhealthy cities. Many of these federally-funded highway projects decimated African-American communities. Automobiles and highways led to suburbanization and urban decline.
- How to Decimate a City
- Stent (or Dagger?) in the Heart of Town: Urban Freeways in Syracuse, 1944-1967